What is an enterprise system and how does it work?

What is an enterprise system and how does it work?

Be sure to make an electronic copy of your answer before submitting it to Ashworth College for grading. Unless otherwise stated, answer in complete sentences, and be sure to use correct English spelling and grammar. Sources must be cited in APA format. Your response should be a minimum of one (1) single-spaced page to a maximum of two (2) pages in length; refer to the “Assignment Format” page for specific format requirements.

Women leadership week 4

Assignment 2: Wooden on Leadership Due Week 4 and worth 240 points

Read the weekly assigned chapters and view the lectures before beginning the assignment. In the current business world, team projects are commonplace. This assignment will use John Wooden’s Pyramid of Success, its different facets, how it relates to project management leadership, and how it is fulfilled in different circumstances. Visit this site dedicated to him to retrieve the information. Write a three to four (3-4) page paper in which you: 1. Describe the extent to which John Wooden’s Pyramid of Success fits today’s business environment after reflecting on your own organization or one that you have observed. Provide three (3) examples to support the response. Refer to your workplace or any organization you know of. I emphasize—3 examples please. 2. Typify your leadership style, and provide three (3) examples of how your own temperament, motivation pattern, thinking styles, character, expectations, and leadership philosophy relate to or contrast themes discussed in John Wooden’s Pyramid of Success. Think about what you may have found out about yourself in our Theory X and Y discussion. Then discuss your similarities and or differences with the Wooden’s Pyramid of Success 3. Analyze John Wooden’s Pyramid of Success and identify the aspects with which you agree and disagree. Provide a rationale for each aspect. The key here is support. Do not make claims without substantiation. 4. Create a new Pyramid of Success model based on your analysis of John Wooden’s Pyramid of Success, and provide a rationale for each aspect or step of this new model. You’re creating your model of success 5. Using either the coaching philosophy of John Wooden’s Pyramid of Success or your own newly designed Pyramid of Success model, develop a step-by-step strategy that self-directed project team members may use to adapt to any project-related crisis. Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements: • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions. • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

Hispanic Challenges & Issues with Hunger and Food Insecurity Type of Paper: Social Policy Analysis Paper Subject

Hispanic Challenges & Issues with Hunger and Food Insecurity

Type of Paper: Social Policy Analysis Paper

Subject: Social Work/Social Policy

Topic of Paper: Hispanic Challenges & Issues with Hunger and Food Insecurity

Paper Requirements:

1. This paper MUST demonstrate critical thinking skills

2. This paper MUST be well-written

3. This paper MUST be free from ALL grammatical errors

4. This paper MUST read fluently

5. This paper MUST utilize APA guidelines from
the 6th edition 2nd printing

6. This paper MUST include peer-reviewed articles ONLY (Over 1,000 peer-reviewed articles are available at United States Department of Agriculture website at www.ers.usda.gov)

7. This paper MUST include Reference page/pages

8. This paper MUST be written in third person. Third person is required.

This paper will consist of 4 different Sections:


Section I – Problem Definition (THIS SECTION REQUIRES EXACTLY 7 PAGES)

1. You MUST explain and elaborate in detail the scope and extent of the issue of hunger and food insecurity among the Hispanic populations in the United States. You Must describe the issue of hunger and food insecurity among Hispanics and state WHY the issue of hunger and food insecurity among Hispanics matter.

2. You MUST discuss some Food policies related to hunger and food insecurity, and then select ONLY one of the policies to ANALYZE (for this paper, you will Analyze the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program known as (SNAP) Policy). * SNAP policy information can be found at www.fns.usda.gov/snap/policy *

– SNAP policies that affect Hispanics decision to apply for SNAP (ex. immigration and naturalization service, citizenship & alien requirements, documentary evidence and verification of identity, residence, social security numbers, ineligible household members, work registration, accommodations for non-English speakers)

– SNAP policies that affect decision to complete the SNAP application process

– SNAP policies that affect whether participating household will receive SNAP benefits

3. Based on the SNAP Policy analyzed:

– You MUST explain who and how Hispanic children and families are affected by such policies?

– You MUST describe all the stakeholders involved or related somehow to the food insecurity and hunger issues among Hispanic populations.

– Discuss the impact of the SNAP policy.

– Discuss how different stakeholders are impacted differently. Explain who supports and who opposes the SNAP policy that affects the Hispanic population.

– Explain if there is a cost associated with the SNAP policy.

– Explain if other policies were considered.

Section II – Alternative Solutions/Policies (THIS SECTION REQUIRES EXACTLY 8 PAGES)

*Based on understanding of Hispanic challenges and issues with hunger and food insecurity and analysis of the SNAP (food stamps) policy: This Section is to include the information below:

1. Explain how effective the SNAP policy is (gather evidence)

2. Discuss goals/solutions posed by the SNAP policy

3. Discuss the relationship between the goals and the issue with hunger and food insecurity

4. Discuss the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) that implemented the SNAP policy

5. Discuss if the SNAP policy was
implemented according to original design

6. Discuss if the USDA changed or skewed the SNAP policy to reflect its own interests and goals

7. Explain changes made from the original design and why they are important

8. Explain if another agency could have implemented the SNAP policy better

9. Explain if the SNAP policy achieve its goals

10. Discuss if the SNAP policy solved the original hunger and food insecurity problem? Or did the SNAP policy solve a different problem that one originally identified?

11. Discuss the costs and consequences of the SNAP policy

12. Discuss if the SNAP policy achieve its goals at a reasonable cost and state rather the SNAP policy was a “success” or a “failure”

13. Discuss other alternatives that were considered

14. Explain why other alternatives were rejected. Were the alternatives rejected for rational or political reasons? Should they have been revisited?

Section III – Recommendations / Evaluating the Policy (THIS SECTION REQUIRES EXACTLY 5 PAGES)

*Based on ALL the information gathered:

1. Discuss some recommendations from a Critical Race Theory perspective to improve hunger and food insecurity among Hispanics in the U.S. and the SNAP policy. (Menu of some Key Recommendations can be viewed at www.snaptohealth.org/policy-recommendations/)

2. Explain why the recommendations were chosen for improvement? (Provide evidence/rationale of argument based on a Critical Race Theory Perspective).

3. Explain how the recommendations would be implemented. (Make sure to include relevant information)

4. Explain how the recommendations would be evaluated


*This section MUST strengthen argument of hunger and food insecurity among Hispanics.

35361 Probability and Stochastic Processes, Spring 2015 Assignment 1 (due to September 9, 2015) The assignment should be handed in to Tim Ling on 9/09/2015. You may use any software for calculations

35361 Probability and Stochastic Processes, Spring 2015
Assignment 1 (due to September 9, 2015)
The assignment should be handed in to Tim Ling on 9/09/2015. You
may use any software for calculations (Mathematica is preferable).
Problem 1.
1) Let Xi, i = 1, 2 be independent random variables (i.r.v.’s) having a
Chi-square distribution, EXi = 4.
(i) Using characteristic functions and the inversion formula find the
probability density function (pdf) of Y = X1 – X2.
(ii) Find E(Y 8).


Problem 2. 1) Using a variance reduction technique (e.g. control
variates) find the Monte-Carlo approximation for the integral

Z 8

(1 + x2)dx.

Use the sample sizes n = 106, n = 107 and compare the results with
the exact value.
2) Using the 3-sigma rule estimate a sample size n required for obtaining a Monte-Carlo approximation with a control variate for J with
an absolute error less than ? = 10-6.


Problem 3.
Let B0(t), t ? [0, 1] be a Brownian Bridge that is a Gaussian process
with E(B0(t)) = 0 and the covariance function
R(t, s) = min(t, s) – ts.
1) Using simulations with a discrete-time process approximation for
B0(t) (e.g. use N=1000 trajectories and n=1000 discretisation points)
find an approximation for the distribution function of the random variable
X = max |B0(t)|
at the points {0.2, 0.6, 2.0}. Hint: use a representation for B0(t) in
terms of a standard Brownian motion.
2) Verify the results using the analytical expression for the distribution
function of X :
P {X < x} = 1 + 2


2 x2
(-1) e


Protectionism Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations through methods


Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and a variety of other government regulations. Please prepare arguments for and against the practice of protectionism. You can read Chapter 2 of our textbook as the starting point. You can also use outside sources to strengthen and support your arguments. Document all viewpoints and their supporting evidence.

This paper is an individual assignment. The length of the paper has to be at least four pages with proper logic, organization, and citations.

Paper Due Date: Thursday, Sep 3rd, 2015.

Requirements for written papers are as follows:

Written Assignments

Requirements for written papers are as follows:
? All written material must be typed (double-spaced, standard margins, 12 point font size, 8½” x 11″ white paper).
? The title of the assignment, your name, the course name and number plus section number (365-01, 365-02) and the professor’s name should appear on the cover page.

Evaluation of Papers
Each writing assignment will be evaluated on the following criteria: Relative Criterion Importance
1. Content – conciseness, correctness, and completeness of answer (highly informative/sufficiently detailed); application of theory learned in course; originality of ideas and creativity; logic of analysis; use of examples and evidence (including a sufficient number of outside sources).
2. Organization, Presentation, and Appearance – Organization includes: a) coherence – the paper is sequentially logical; paragraphs and sentences are in the right order; topics are developed within paragraphs; topic transitions between sections, paragraphs, and sentences flow smoothly and logically; b) unity – introduction and conclusion (summarizes and provides closure); the theme is clear; everything in the paper defends or explains the theme.
Presentation and appearance involve matters such as neatness and proper formal paper format (including title page, endnotes, headings and subheadings, page numbers, margins, use of exhibits and illustrative charts, etc.).
3. Clarity of Communication – a) Writing style – the paper is clearly and concisely written, not to impress, but to make the reader understand; active voice; verb tense consistent; professional tone (absence of contractions, appropriate vocabulary, etc.) b) Mechanics – grammar, syntax, spelling, punctuation, word divisions (typographical errors, if present, should be corrected in pencil).
Total 100%

Topic: Implementation of Safety Best Practices to reduce medication errors in (In-Patient) Facility Order Description answer the following questions

Topic: Implementation of Safety Best Practices to reduce medication errors in (In-Patient) Facility

Order Description

answer the following questions

1. Provide a brief description of your organisation (You can use the following information)

Excellence Hospital started in Jumeirah in 2003. Over the past twelve years, EH established
a strong brand known for quality, safety, and commitment to excellence.
EH physicians and surgeons are amongst the best in Dubai and they are highly credentialed
and the majority of them are Western trained with American or European Board certification.

Hospital Statistics:
18 outpatient clinics including a 24 hour walk-in urgent care clinic
4 operating theatres
11 IP beds, 8 recovery beds plus 1 prep bed, 2 ICU beds, 3 urgent care beds
In patient pharmacy, laboratory, conventional x-rays, mammography, ultrasounds
18,500 SF of space plus four adjacent villas used for administrative purposes (finance, IT,
Insurance, marketing, etc.)

2.0: Mission:
Our mission is to provide high quality, faster-better-friendlier service consistent with the needs
and beliefs, of our patients, employees, visitors and vendors in a comfortable, secure
3.0: Vision:
To be the multi-specialty clinics and surgical hospital of choice for patients, employees and
community doctors in UAE.
4.0: Core Values:
Customer Focus and patient safety
Respect and Collegiality
Teamwork, productivity and efficiency
Leadership with accountability

2. Describe the change you hope to implement.
What is the current situation? What is the desired situation? How are you going to achieve it?

3. Why is this change needed? Please discuss how you analysed the need for change within your organisation / department /team. Include as an appendix any tools you used to help you in this analysis.

4. Discuss the organisational impact you hope the change will have and describe the expected outcome(s).

5. Discuss the potential threats or obstacles to implementing this change.

6. Outline your proposed method(s) of evaluating this change. How will you demonstrate that you have achieved your expected outcomes described in Section 4 above?

7. Describe your role in your organisation and also your role as you see it in this change project (i.e. what will you be responsible for and what will others be responsible for in bringing about your proposed change)?

8. Include an appendix with the expected main phases of work and timelines (mini Gantt Chart). (to be attached)

9. Is there literature available related to your chosen topic? Please list 4 to 7 references to demonstrate you have conducted an initial literature search.

Is genetic engineering fundamentally different than traditional

Is genetic engineering fundamentally different than traditional plant and livestock breeding? Does that matter?/What is your opinion on creating, growing, and consuming genetically modified plants (GMOs)/What is your opinion about using genetic engineering to develop “better” farm animals?/Can genetic technology offer a solution to world food shortages (an environmental problem)?

In Berg, et al. (2011) Chapter 14, genetic engineering is described. Farmers, animal breeders, and scientists have been making genetic selections for desirable characteristics in farm plants and animals for centuries using traditional breeding methods. Genetic engineering has the potential to accomplish this in a fraction of the time. However, the production of genetically modified plants and farm animals using the new techniques in molecular biology is controversial. Furthermore, the development of genetic engineering technology opens possibility of cloning human body parts or even individuals.

Your response needs to adequately cover the topic which in general should take at least 250 words.


After reviewing your text, the website on cloning technology, and at least one other credible reference source, explain your opinion of two or more of the following questions:

Is genetic engineering fundamentally different than traditional plant and livestock breeding? Does that matter?
What is your opinion on creating, growing, and consuming genetically modified plants (GMOs)?
What is your opinion about using genetic engineering to develop “better” farm animals?
Can genetic technology offer a solution to world food shortages (an environmental problem)?

Whole Foods provides its workers with

1. As described in one of the slides, Whole Foods provides its workers with a health plan with a deductible of about $2500, and also contributes $1800 per year to a worker’s “Personal Wellness Account,” which can be used to pay out-of-pocket costs (these are old numbers, they have probably changed by now). If the deductible is supposed to make the worker more conscious of costs when consuming health care, why doesn’t the Wellness Account contribution defeat much of the purpose of the deductible? Under some arrangements, accounts like this belong to the worker, even if the worker leaves the job. Under other arrangements, the account disappears when the worker leaves. Does which type of account is used make a difference for the worker’s incentives about using the Wellness Account? Discuss.
2. Suppose you are buying insurance as a 25-year-old single non-smoker (men) in the marketplace (insurance exchange). Use this website for your information: https://www.healthcare.gov/see-plans/
Assume that you are from Wayne County, MI. You can use the zipcode 48205 (which is where I grew up), and you don’t need to enter information about income and can say “not now” when it asks “Do you want an estimate of your total yearly costs?”
a. What is the second lowest silver plan available to you, and what is its unsubsidized annual premium? (The website gives you monthly premiums, so you have to multiply by 12.)
b. What is the lowest premium plan with a deductible no higher than $1,000, and what is its unsubsidized annual premium?
c. Now suppose your income for the year is $17,655 (150% of poverty). At this income level you are expected to pay 4% of your income if you buy the second lowest silver plan. Whatwould be the annual premium that you would pay after subsidy?
d. What annual premium would you pay, after subsidy, if you chose the plan from part b? Explain how you calculated it.
e. Suppose you have a chance to get a better job and raise your income to $29,245 (250% of poverty). At that income level you would be expected to pay 8.05% of your income toward the premium for the second lowest silver plan. What is the implicit tax rate you would pay on the additional income as a result of a reduction in the subsidy? Explain.

Although you don’t need it to answer this question, you might also find this website interesting

Health Insurance Marketplace Calculator

Additional ungraded questions.

1. Suppose Mr. Jones is paying his workers $300 a month with no health insurance (Scenario 1). He offers as an alternative $200 a month wages plus health insurance that costs him $100 (Scenario 2). Mr. Jones is indifferent between the two since they cost him the same total amount, and as far as he is concerned they are the same for tax purposes.
How an employee views these two alternatives depends on the tax treatment of health insurance. In the current situation, the employee pays taxes on wages but not on health insurance provided by the employer. Suppose the tax rate is 1/3. Fill in the following table. If health insurance is taxed just like wages, the employee pays tax on $300 in both Scenario 1 and Scenario 2.
Current tax treatment of health insurance
Scenario 1 Scenario 2
After-tax wages
Health insurance No Yes
Health insurance taxed just like wages
Scenario 1 Scenario 2
After-tax wages
Health insurance No Yeas
After you have filled in the table, answer the following: Under the current tax treatment of health insurance, how much does the worker need to value health insurance (in dollars) in order to choose Scenario 2 over Scenario 1?

2. Consider two different consumer-directed health plans. One has a $5000 deductible, with the insurance paying for all care after the deductible has been met. The other has a $2000 deductible, a 10% coinsurance rate after the deductible is met, and a “stop-loss” (maximum out-of-pocket payment) of $5000. Discuss the differences between these two plans. Which one subjects the consumer to more risk? How do they differ in their effects on consumer incentives to use care, over different possible ranges of spending?

3. (Difficult) This question is about risk adjustment in an insurance exchange.
a. Consider an example like the one discussed in class (Dec 8) except that expected costs by health plan and risk type are as in the table below. Assume equal numbers of each risk type. Everyone is required to buy insurance, and each health plan has to charge the same premium to all risk types. What would the taxes and subsidies charged to insurers for taking on different risk types need to be in order that (i) total taxes collected would just cover total subsidies paid, and (ii) no insurer would have an incentive to seek out the healthy and avoid the sick? Explain. Hint: there might need to be a tax or subsidy for every risk type. Note: the tax or subsidy for a risk type must be the same for every insurer.
Risk types ? Low Middle High
PPO $120 $200 $310
IPA-HMO $80 $160 $270
Staff HMO $50 $130 $240

b. Now suppose expected costs look like the table below (it’s just like in class except that the expected costs for the high risks are particularly high in the PPO plan). Explain why it won’t be possible to set taxes and subsidies to achieve goals (i) and (ii) from part a at the same time.
Risk types ? Low Middle High
PPO $120 $200 $310
IPA-HMO $80 $160 $240
Staff HMO $50 $130 $210

c. Sticking with this example from part b, suppose there is a tax of $80 for signing up a low risk and a subsidy of $80 for signing up a high risk (no tax or subsidy for signing up a middle risk). Will goal (i) be achieved? What special concern will the PPO have in choosing its premium?

Research Plan and Ethical Implications.

Research Plan and Ethical Implications.

• Make sure that should be 100% free from plagiarism.
• All references should be recent and available online. (Use GoogleScholar)
• Provide the links of the references.

This document provides some examples for how you might word items in your questionnaire. You can change the item wording to suit the focus of your project.

For more tips, see Nardi P. Chapter 4: Developing a questionnaire.

1.    Gender (please tick):
? Female        ? Male
2.    Age: _____ (years)

3.    What is the highest level of formal education that you have completed? (tick one box)
University qualification                      Secondary School
TAFE or technical qualification          Primary School
4.    Please indicate your family background (tick all that apply):
Australian Indigenous
Other (please specify) ___________
5.    Height: __________ (in metres)

6.    Weight: _____________ (in kg)?

7.    Please indicate your current relationship status

Single                                                 De facto relationship
Married                                              Separated/Divorced

8.    In the past week, how many serves of fruit did you eat each day?
1 serve of fruit is equivalent to 1 medium sized piece of fruit (e.g., apple, orange, mango, mandarin, banana, pear, peach), 2 small pieces of fruit (e.g., apricots, kiwifruit, plums, figs), 8 strawberries, or ½ cup of fruit juice.
_____ serves of fruit per day

9.    In the past week, how many serves of vegetables did you eat each day?
1 serve of vegetables is equivalent to 1 medium potato, or ½ a medium sweet potato, or ½ cup of dark green leafy vegetables (e.g., cabbage, spinach, broccoli, or brussel sprouts), or 1 cup of other vegetables (e.g., lettuce, beans, lentils, peas, zucchini, cucumber, mushrooms).
_____ serves of vegetables per day

This section asks a series of questions about your thoughts about food and eating.
For each statement below, please tick (?) the box that best describes your own opinion of what is generally true for you.
Rarely true    Sometimes true    Often true    Usually true    Always true
1    I stop eating when I’m full even when eating something I love.    ?    ?    ?    ?    ?

Please circle the number that represents your level of agreement with each statement.
SD = Strongly Disagree, D = Disagree, A = Agree, SA = Strongly Agree
SD        D        A        SA
1    I have fond memories of family food occasions    1    2    3    4    5    6    7
2        1    2    3    4    5    6    7

The following questions also ask you about your eating behaviour. Please indicate how frequently each question is true for you by circling the appropriate number.

Never    Seldom    Sometimes    Often    Very often
1.    Do you watch exactly what you eat?    1    2    3    4    5
2.    Do you try to eat less at mealtimes than you would like to eat?    1    2    3    4    5

This next section involves answering questions about your consumption of beverages. To the best of your memory, click one box which best represents how much of each drink you have consumed in the past week. Please try to answer as accurately as possible for each drink.

People exercise for a variety of reasons.  When people are asked why they exercise, their answers are sometimes based on the reasons they believe they should have for exercising.  What we want to know are the reasons people actually have for exercising. Please respond to the items below as honestly as possible. On a scale of 1, not at all important, through to 4, moderately important, to 7, extremely important, to what extent is each of the following an important reason that you have for exercising?

HLTH3105 Major Assignment

Out of hospital cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death in Australia. Prior research has suggested that correctly delivered CPR can triple survival rates but is rarely performed. The current study sought to investigate how time since last CPR training influences self perceived confidence to perform CPR.
Participants were conveniently sampled, with 30 questionnaires completed by Bachelor of Health Science Students at Flinders University. Data analysis was completed using SPSS, with analysis of the hypotheses performed using Pearson Correlations, using participant’s confidence to perform chest compressions and ventilations with time since last CPR training. A p value of less than .05 (two tailed) was considered statistically significant.
The majority of participants felt ‘fairly confident’ to perform chest compressions (53.3%) and ventilations (56.7%) in an emergency situation. This could be related to the fact that over half (60%) of participants had completed CPR training less than 6 months ago. Participants were most concerned about a lack of confidence/not knowing how to perform CPR, followed by a fear of hurting the person, and reluctance to perform mouth to mouth contact because of health concerns.
This study provided an opportunity for Health Science students to express their views and experiences of emergency CPR training and provision. Responses to the questionnaires indicate that regular CPR training for the general population is worthwhile, as they are willing to retrain and use their CPR skills in an emergency. The data generated by these responses has identified areas of CPR training where practice could be improved, including education on the risks of CPR, the benefits of compression only CPR if the rescuer does not feel confident ventilating, and CPR training which focuses on and aids skill retention.
Keywords: CPR; ventilations; compression only CPR; training
HLTH3105 Major Assignment
Introduction _____________________________________________________
Out of hospital cardiac arrest is a leading cause of mortality in Australia, and accounts for approximately 50% of cardiovascular related deaths (Mitchell, Stubbs & Eisenberg 2009). Emergency bystander CPR is vital in order to achieve successful outcomes for out of hospital cardiac arrests (Casper, Murphy, Weinstein & Brinsfield 2003). Delayed CPR greatly decreases the chances of survival, and as a result, substantial societal resources are focused on mass CPR training, and on innovative methods to provide and improve CPR to the wider population (Swor, Khan, Domeier, Honeycutt, Chu & Compton 2006). Further investigation is required to address the low rate of citizen-initiated CPR evident in many communities.
Despite the resources provided, bystander CPR rates remain poor, with studies using prospective observational methods illustrating that only a minority of CPR trained bystanders perform CPR, with bystander panic identified as the most common reason for CPR non provision (Swor et al. 2006). Others have found that there may be psychological barriers such as a lack of confidence influencing individuals’ motivation to initiate CPR provision (Casper et al. 2003). Despite there being a large body of literature documenting the importance of bystander CPR and training methods, there are currently gaps in knowledge assessing the relationship between confidence and performance/non performance of CPR by trained bystanders.
A strong and independent correlation exists between bystander CPR and good functional outcomes for patients (Stiell, Nichol, Wells, Maio, Nesbitt, Blackburn & Spaite 2003). Furthermore, a study has shown that there is a rapid deterioration in lay persons’ CPR skills over the course of time, in spite of more than half of respondents in the study stating they were confident they were able to perform CPR (Lester, Donnelly & Assar 2000). For example, a recent quantitative study by Moran & Stanley (2011) who surveyed parents with toddlers aged 2-4 years old using self report questionnaires, found that one third of respondents with previous CPR training could not accurately recall CPR guidelines or compression/breath ratios (Moran & Stanley 2011), with over half of respondents not confident about their ability to perform CPR on adults, and less so their own children. They suggest that a lack of training, current knowledge and confidence to perform CPR contributes to low CPR rates (Moran & Stanley 2011), however the effect of time elapsed since last training on confidence to initiate CPR remains undefined.
HLTH3105 Major Assignment
A trend in the literature showed that those who had trained in CPR in the past 12 months were more likely to provide CPR to known or unknown victims, however the rate of respondents willing to perform CPR declined as time since last training grew (Jelinek, Gennat, Celenza, O’Brien, Jacobs & Lynch 2001). Additionally, one day refresher courses have been found to greatly improve respondent’s attitudes towards providing CPR (Kliegel, Scheinecker, Sterz, Eisenburger, Holzer & Laggner 2000).
One way of exploring the low rates of bystander CPR is using the Transtheoretical model of readiness (TTM) to interpret findings. The TTM was has empirical support for its validity across diverse preventative health behaviours, and because it has been widely used as a basis for developing effective interventions to promote health behaviour change (Nagelkerk 2006). This model can be used to understand how individual confidence and perceived self efficacy to use CPR in an emergency is influenced by the length of time since last CPR training. The model states that the performance of a health behaviour is predicted by progressive stages in the individuals self reported readiness, (Nolan, Wilson, Shuster, Rowe, Stewart & Zambon 1999), including precontemplation (person not intending to take action), contemplation (intending to change behaviour, and is beginning to verbalise the pros and cons of the behaviour change), preparation (intending to take action), action (take overt actions towards change that are observable), and maintenance (person works to maintain newly acquired health behaviour to avoid relapse) (Nagelkerk 2006).
In an earlier qualitative study involving four Flinders University students conducted by the research student, it was discovered that extended time intervals between CPR trained participants’ last CPR training was a factor behind an unwillingness to perform CPR (Miller 2011). This study involved one person from each of the four streams of the Bachelor of Health Science, which found that recent CPR training and confidence levels were strongly linked.
For this reason, a quantitative study is proposed to determine whether time since last CPR training is correlated with the confidence to provide CPR initiation, provision or non provision by CPR trained individuals.
HLTH3105 Major Assignment
Research Question
“Does length of time since undertaking CPR training relate to confidence to administer CPR in any emergency situation requiring CPR?”
It is hypothesised that:
The length of time since completing CPR training will be negatively correlated with confidence to administer chest compressions amongst Flinders University Health Science students with current CPR training.
The length of time since completing CPR training will be negatively correlated with confidence to administer ventilations amongst Flinders University Health Science students with current CPR training.
Study Design
This study utilised quantitative methodology, using an observational cross sectional study design to conduct one on one questionnaires’ with students studying Health Science at Flinders University. Questionnaires were used to determine whether the time since last CPR training is correlated with the confidence to provide CPR initiation, provision or non provision by CPR trained individuals. This study design enabled an overall snapshot of confidence of bystanders to conduct CPR as it stood at the time of the study. Additionally, as this cross sectional study design involved only one contact with the study sample, it proved comparatively cost effective to undertake, and relatively straightforward to analyse. However, this study design meant it was not possible to measure change in knowledge over time within the study (Kumar 2010).
Convenience sampling was used to identify the thirty participants, with this sampling method being selected as data could be collected quickly and easily, which was suitable for this project. Participants included 30 students (studying Paramedic Science, Education, and Nursing) in the Bachelor of Health Science at Flinders University.
HLTH3105 Major Assignment
A sample size of 30 was determined as a result of funding, time and resources available, but enabled appropriate statistical analysis to test the study hypotheses.
When recruiting participants, a verbal script was used to explain the key points of the study, including what participants could expect in terms of the time required for participation. If students were willing to find out more about the study, they were given a copy of the student research project letter of introduction, entailing information regarding the researcher, their aims, what is expected of participants, time required, data collection methods and information regarding confidentiality. The student was then provided with an information sheet containing a description of the study, what the study involves, potential outcomes of the study, benefits of participation and details regarding monitoring of the research. If the student agreed to partake in the study, they were asked to sign two consent forms for participation in research before completing a questionnaire. One copy was provided for the student to keep, and the copy retained was delivered to the Topic Coordinator.
The following inclusion criteria was used to determine if students were eligible to take part in the study.
Participants must have, or have had previous CPR training.
Participants must be currently enrolled in the Bachelor of Health Science at Flinders University.
Data Collection
Participants were approached in the Flinders University Sturt Campus Library and asked to partake in the study by completing a structured questionnaire, comprising of 20 questions (see appendix 1). No participants refused to participate in the study. Questionnaires were self completed, with completion time ranging from 5 to 10 minutes.
A suitable existing questionnaire was unable to be found. As a result, the research student developed the questionnaire. Certain questions were based upon issues which arose in Lester, Donnelly, & Assar’s 2000 study and Millers 2011 study.
HLTH3105 Major Assignment
Data Analysis
SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) computer application enabled statistical analysis of the data, and was used to examine the association between current year of Health Science, gender, training, experiences, behaviours and beliefs about providing emergency CPR. For the purposes of this analysis, CPR barriers were defined as responses obtained from question 2, confidence issues from questions 4 and 17, time since last CPR training from question 5, and concerns from questions 9 and 14.
Analysis of the hypotheses was performed using Pearson Correlations, using participant’s confidence to perform chest compressions and ventilations with time since last CPR training. A p value of less than .05 (two tailed) was considered statistically significant.
A total of 30 participants completed the questionnaire. Of these, the mean age was 22.7 years, with a standard deviation of 7.47. The majority of respondents (86.7%) were female and 13.3% were male, with over half (53.3%) of the participants studying in the first year of their degrees, followed by 33.3% in their second year and 13.3% in third year.
Participants were asked where they were taught CPR, with 36.7% of participants originally taught how to perform CPR at high school, closely followed by 30% who had learnt as a result of their degree studies. A small number (13.3%) had used their CPR skills in an emergency, with 6.7% performing CPR (chest compressions with ventilations), 3.3% performing chest compression only, and 3.3 calling emergency services. Participants were asked about their confidence to perform chest compressions and ventilations together in an emergency. The results summarised in figure two and three illustrate that the majority of students are fairly confident to perform these skills. However, confidence was negatively correlated with time elapsed since training for both chest compressions (r = 0.463 p = 0.01) and ventilations (r = 0.359 p =0.057) (see figure 1).
93% of participants intended to refresh their CPR knowledge, despite 60% completing CPR training within the last 6 months and 80% of these selecting the correct CPR ratio. This intent to refresh could be related to the fact that over half (56.7) of respondents state that this is because it is mandatory for their job.
HLTH3105 Major Assignment
63.3% of participants were willing to give up 1 day for CPR training, followed by 26.7% nominating 2 hours and 10% nominating 1 hour. Following on from this, 50% of participants stated that CPR should be re-accredited annually, with 26.7 preferring every 6 months, and 23.3 nominating every 2 years.
Figure 1. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2 tailed)
Not knowing how to/lack of confidence was identified as the main concern regarding CPR provision, with automated external defibrillator (AED) (along with airway and ventilation) use recognised as the most common area of CPR provision in which participants lack confidence (figure 6). This is despite 56.7% stating they were familiar with how to use one.
Finally, participants were asked if they were worried about hurting the person requiring CPR. 56.7% were, stating broken ribs (36.7), damage to internal organs (10%) and bruises (6.7) as primary concerns. No participants said that this would stop them from performing emergency CPR.
HLTH3105 Major Assignment
Figure 2. Confidence to perform chest compressions
Figure 3. Confidence to perform ventilations
Confidence to perform chest compressions
Very Confident
Fairly Confident
Not very
Not at all
Confidence to perform ventilations
Fairly Confident
Not Very
Not at all
HLTH3105 Major Assignment
Figure 4. Concerns regarding CPR provision
This study identified that the majority of participants who had completed CPR training within the past 6-12 months were more confident than those who had last trained 2 or more years ago to perform emergency CPR. This suggests that length of time since undertaking CPR training does indeed relate to confidence to administer CPR in any emergency situation requiring CPR. This finding was not surprising as previous research has yielded similar results (Swor et al. 2006), with another study concluding that CPR training greatly reduces fears to react (Kliegel et al. 2000). Therefore, the research supports the hypotheses, establishing that the length of time since completing CPR training is negatively correlated with confidence to administer chest compressions and ventilations amongst Flinders University Health Science students with current CPR training.
Willingness to perform CPR is a topic that has received much attention in the literature, which is mainly based on populations posed with hypothetical questions, generally resulting in identifying barriers such as a fear of disease transmission (Lester & Assar 2000) and significant reluctance to provide mouth to mouth contact (Jelinek et al. 2001). Similarly, our results have shown that mouth to mouth contact and the spread of disease is ranked as the
Hurting the person
Not knowing how to/lack of confidence
Providing CPR for children
Mouth to mouth contact/communicable diseases
Legal consequences
Providing CPR for strangers
Providing CPR for family or friends
Not applicable
Concerns regarding CPR provision
HLTH3105 Major Assignment
third top barrier to providing CPR, after confidence and hurting the victim. The fourth most common concern for participants was providing CPR for children. Participants were not asked to identify the correct CPR procedures for children however it remained a major concern. Moran & Stanley (2011) also recognised substantial gaps in knowledge of CPR for children.
Casper et al. (2003) identified that victims of cardiac arrest are more likely to receive CPR when the event is witnessed by bystanders unknown to the victim than if the arrest is witnessed by friends or family. Our study showed no significant difference regarding CPR for strangers or for known victims.
This study involved quantitative questionnaires with a small group of students from Flinders University. While this group provided outreach to a broad range of ages, social, religious, and racial areas, further research with a larger sample size is required to determine if the views expressed can be generalised to a wider population. Additionally, using self report questionnaires as a measure of CPR behaviour may not be consistent with actual behaviour. The fixed choice questionnaire was unable to incorporate ‘other’ answers for questions, which did not allow full representation of the participant’s preferences. Finally, the face to face nature of the questionnaires, although allowing for timely and complete data collection, may have caused an unwillingness to disclose information related to their behaviours without the ability to remain completely anonymous.
A lack of confidence is a major barrier for emergency CPR. Participants who had trained within the last 6-12 months displayed more confidence to perform CPR than those who had not. Previously espoused reasons in previous studies for non provision of CPR (spread of disease/mouth to mouth contact/lack of confidence) were also major concerns identified in this study.
A lack of confidence was identified as the most common reason concern for emergency CPR provision, and is a topic that must be addressed. This research highlights the importance of regular re-training in community CPR programs. It is apparent there is a lack of education regarding airway management, the use of AED monitors, providing CPR for children, the benefits of CPR against the risks of ‘hurting’ the victim, and the risk of communicable
HLTH3105 Major Assignment
disease transmission. Based on this study’s results, it is suggested that CPR training focused on reinforcing the ‘action’ and ‘maintenance’ phases of the Transtheoretical Model of Readiness by tailoring CPR teaching strategies will enhance motivational readiness and decrease apprehension about the psychosocial barriers identified above. In addition, introducing mandatory CPR training for all schools and workplaces and annual 1 day CPR re-accreditation courses would improve bystander confidence to perform emergency CPR.
Ethical Implications
This study complied with all of the requirements of, and was approved by, the Flinders University Social and Behavioural Research Ethics Committee (Project Number 5280). Survey participants were made fully aware that participation is voluntary, that their written consent is required, that they will not be harmed, and that any information provided is fully confidential, anonymous and their privacy is maintained.
The author is grateful to the participants who agreed to take part in this study.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
The author declares no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research.
HLTH3105 Major Assignment
Casper, K, Murphy, G, Weinstein, C & Brinsfield, K 2003, ‘A Comparison of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Rates of Strangers Versus Known Bystanders’, Pre Hospital Emergency Care, vol.7, issue 3, pp.299-302
Jelinek, G, Gennat, H, Celenza, T, O’Brien, D, Jacobs, I & Lynch, D 2001, ‘Community attitudes towards performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Western Australia, Resuscitation, vol.51, issue 3, pp.239-246
Kliegel, A, Scheinecker, W, Sterz, F, Eisenburger, P, Holzer , M & Laggner , A 2000, ‘The attitudes of cardiac arrest survivors and their family members towards CPR courses’ Resuscitation vol.47, issue 2, pp. 147–154
Kumar, R 2010, Research Methodology: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners, SAGE Publications, London, chapter 8, p.107.
Lester, C, Donnelly, P & Assar, D 2000, ‘Lay CPR trainees: retraining, confidence and willingness to attempt resuscitation 4 years after training’, Resuscitation, vol.45, issue 2, pp.77-82
Miller, H 2011, ‘Do social learning experiences influence health science students’ perception and willingness to administer emergency CPR?’, Major Assignment, Qualitative Methods in Social Health Research, Flinders University
Moran, K & Stanley, T 2011, ‘Toddler parents training, understanding, and perceptions of CPR’, Resuscitation, vol.82, issue 5, pp.572-576
Mitchell, M, Stubbs, B, & Eisenberg, M 2009, ‘Socioeconomic status is associated with provision of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation’, Pre-hospital Emergency Care, vol.13, issue 4, pp.478-486
Nagelkerk, J 2006, Starting your practice: a survival guide for nurse practitioners, Mosby Elsevier, Missouri, p.192
Nolan, R, Wilson, E, Shuster, M, Rowe, B, Stewart, D & Zambon, S 1999, ‘Readiness to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation: an emerging strategy against sudden cardiac death’ Psychosomatic. Medicine vol.61, pp. 546–551
HLTH3105 Major Assignment
Stiell I, Nichol G, Wells G, Maio, V, Nesbitt, L, Blackburn, J & Spaite, D 2003, ‘Health-related quality of life is better for cardiac arrest survivors who received citizen CPR’, Circulation, vol. 108, pp.1939–1944
Swor, R, Khan, I, Domeier, R, Honeycutt, L, Chu, K & Compton, S 2006, ‘CPR Training and CPR Performance: Do CPR-Trained Bystanders Perform CPR?’, Academic Emergency Medicine, vol.13, issue 6, pp.596-601
HLTH3105 Major Assignment
This questionnaire is exploring the relationship between length of time since last CPR training, and confidence to perform emergency CPR. Please complete this questionnaire by circling one answer per question.
Year of degree:
1. Where were you taught how to perform CPR?
• High school
• Through workplace
• University degree
• Independent course
• Other (Please specify)
2. Have you used your cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills (CPR) in an emergency?
• Yes (Go to question 3)
• No (Skip to question 4)
3. If yes, what did you do?
• Performed CPR (chest compressions with ventilation)
• Compression only CPR
• Called Emergency Services
• Other (Please specify)
4. How confident do you feel about using your resuscitation skills in an emergency?
Chest compressions
• Very confident
• Fairly confident
• Unsure
• Not very confident
• Not at all confident
• Very confident
• Fairly confident
• Unsure
• Not very confident
• Not at all confident
5. How long ago was your last CPR training?
• Less than 6 months ago
• One year ago
• Two years ago
• Three or more years ago
HLTH3105 Major Assignment
6. Do you intend on refreshing your CPR certification?
• Yes
• No
• If no, please explain why you would or would not refresh your CPR certification.
7. Do you think CPR training should be mandatory?
• Yes, in school
• Yes, in all workplaces
• Yes, to obtain a drivers licence
• All of the above
• No, it should be optional
8. How much time would you be willing to give up to refresh your CPR knowledge?
• 1 hour
• 2 hours
• 1 day
9. What concerns you most about providing CPR out of the following?
• Hurting the person
• Not knowing how to/lack of confidence
• Providing CPR for children
• Mouth to mouth contact/communicable diseases
• Legal consequences
• Providing CPR for strangers
• Providing CPR for family or friends
• Other (Please specify)
10. Can you recall the current compression-ventilation ratio for adult CPR? (According to the Australian Resuscitation Council)
• 15 compressions to 1 breath
• 30 compressions to 1 breath
• 30 compressions to 2 breaths
• Other (Please specify)
11. Are you familiar with how to use an automated external defibrillator (AED)?
• Yes
• No
12. Do you want more CPR training?
• Yes
• No (Skip to question 14)
13. If yes, what is the reason?
• I have to for my job
• I am a parent
• Family members with cardiac related medical problems
HLTH3105 Major Assignment
• Other (Please specify)
14. Are you concerned about hurting the person requiring CPR?
• Yes
• No (Skip to question 17)
15. If yes, how do you think you might hurt them?
• Broken ribs
• Bruises
• Cause damage to organs
• Other (Please specify)
16. Would this stop you from performing emergency CPR?
• Yes
• No
17. Which areas of CPR are you least confident in?
• Airway & ventilation
• Chest compressions
• AED defibrillation
• Being able to tell if they need it or not
• Other (Please specify)
18. How often do you believe CPR needs to be refreshed?
• Every 6 months
• Annually
• Every two years
• Other (Please specify)
Thank you for completing this questionnaire.




Order Description

-2000 words

Topic:  Global  Food Security: How best to feed the world?

Can you think of any
other perspectives?

Perspective: Christian
•  What belief is held by
this group?
•  What resolution would
they opt for?
•  Who would benefit?
Perspective :  Those who  call for change in
diet and attitude
•  What belief is held by this group?
•  What resolution would they opt for?
•  Who would  benefit?

Perspective: Multinational agribusinesses
•  What belief is held by this group?
•  What resolution would they opt for?
•  Who would benefit?

Perspective:   Science, research and
•  What belief is held by this group?
•  What resolution would they opt for?
•  Who would benefit?

Perspective : Farmers
•  What belief is held by this group?
•  What resolution would they opt for?
•  Who would benefit?

Perspective : Aid and development
•  What belief is held by this
•  What resolution would they
opt for?
•  Who would benefit?

TOPIC:  Global Food Security

A number of resources have been provided for you in this package.
Use any/ all of the material to complete your analysis.
Your Task:
1.   Choose one hot topic from those presented
2.   Describe the issue (150 words)
3.   Explain why this is an issue of justice or the common good (150 words).
4.   Identify the people or groups who have a st ake in the issue and analyse
their perspectives on it. Why may   some stakeholders not want the
situation to change? (750 words)
5.   Analyse the issue in terms of the  common good and the  principles that
promote human flourishing. (750 words)
6.   In light of your ana lysis, how might the common good best be served in
relation to this issue?   (200 words).

Food is a fundamental need and, at its best, a source of delight for all living creatures. For human beings food is an absolute necessity for the life, health and

wellbeing of
present generations and the hope for future generations. Food prod uction is the most fundamental  economic activity; hospitality, the enjoyment and sharing of

food, is
fundamental to family life and  social cohesion.
Most of us are lucky enough not to have to wonder where our next meal is coming from. Most of us also do not actually grow or produce the food which we

consume on a
daily basis. We simply go to the supermarket to buy what we need and before us is a vast array of choices   from all over the world .  This may mean that we do not

get an
adequate sense of a number of   important  issues around food.
The  production  and  distribution   of food sufficient to meet the needs of the world’s population has always been a challenge. Insufficient food, and hunger, is

one aspect of
poverty and its attendant ills, a fact recognised in the United Nations’ Millennium Declaration ( see section III, pp 4 -5). The first of  the  Millennium Development

goals  is  the
“ eradication of extreme poverty and hunger” by 2015 . Read this  fact sheet   for more information on this important goal.
Food security involves increasing the production  of food world-wi de to meet the needs of  a global population, which, it is estimated, will rise to over nine billion

people by
yet fewer people today are farmers than ever before in history. While over half a billion people around the world are conside red to be obes e,
over 800 million
people are undernourished.
The vast majority of the world’s population, and around 98% of its hungry population, live in the developing world.
Most of the world’s
farmers also live in the developing world. These farmers, who are  typi cally without political and economic power, need to have access to land and to the benefits

agricultural and related sciences to improve their yields and the nutritional value of the foods they produce.

Worldometers “World Population: Past, Present and Future,” accessed April 13, 2014,   http://www.worldometers.info/world -population/
World Health Organisation, “10 Facts on Obesity,” accessed April 13, 2014,  http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/obesity/facts/en/index1.html
United Nations World Food Program, “Hunger,” accessed April 13, 2014,   http://www.wfp.org/hunger
“Who are the Hungry?” United Nations World Food Program, http://www.wfp.org/hunger/who-are
For your  weekly tutorial preparation  and test  you will need to cover the introductory and background information  in each hot   topic ( and  all the links within

sections) .  These  sections will be indicated by this symbol:          Test questions may be drawn from this information.
In addition you  need to examine  at least two perspectives, again identified with this symbol:
Within the identified perspectives, you need  to   read the general information and  access  all of the links. If you choose this hot topic for Assessment Task 2 you

need to explore ALL the resources and perspectives presented here.

Food security also involves the fair distribution  of food under equitable conditions. Producers, especially those in the developing world, need to be able to get a

fair price
for their products; infrastructure needs to be at a level which provides access to markets; and infrastructure is required to   deliver farming supplies, and, where

food products to those in need.
In this Hot Topic, we will focus our investigation on food security in the developing world.

Achieving food security is a complex issue. Food production   and  food distribution  are separate issues, but inextricably linked. It is not merely a matter of

producing sufficient
food, although that is an increasing challenge, but  also a matter of  ensuring justice in terms of   access to adequate nutritious food for all people   through equity

The world needs to produce more food, and food with adequate nutrients, to feed the present and the ever growing population; however, we are faced with

challenges: climate change and worsening weather conditions;  diminishing arable land due to factors such as soil degradation and urban growth; and increasing

demand on
our finite water supply.
To achieve food security at a global level we need to be smarter and fairer:  efficiency and  equity   must drive responses to  this contemporary challenge.
The following resources provide an overview of this challenge:
•  This Australian Government sponsored paper, “ Global Food Security: Facts, Issues and Implications”   introduces some of the major issues we face in terms of

•  This  introductory video   from Science Magazine  (full captions available)  offers an overview of the issue of food security.
•  This article by Charles Godfray, et. al ., “Food security: The challenge of feeding Nine Billion People ,” [Science   327 (2010: 812-818) is from the special edition of

Magazine, mentioned in the video. It offers an excellent overview of the issue of food security into the future.
Issues raised when we consider  Global Food Security: How best to feed the world , include the followi ng:
•  The role of scientific research in increasing the amount and nutritional level of food: Are farmers, especially in developing  countries, gaining access to scientific
discoveries? Is the expertise of these farmers being drawn on, for example, through partnerships between scientists and local farmers? The results of some

research raise complex issues, such a genetic modification (GM) of foods: who decides?

•    Conditions resulting from climate change and from soil degradation exacerbate the difficulties of producing more food for a g rowing population: How is climate

affecting the livelihoods of people who were once able to be self- sufficient in food prod uction? Are the industrial societies, which are largely responsible for climate
change, adequately compensating those in the developing world who are adversely affected by changes wrought by climate change, for example, increased aridity

salinity? What   is the nexus (connection) between increased agricultural production and climate change?

•  Economic, political and social power structures affect access to knowledge and expertise and affect the marketing and distrib ution of food and resources: In

in terests are global markets organised? What is the role of large transnational companies in disseminating scientific advances to those most in need? What role

political corruption play in local people gaining access to production techniques and to markets?

•  In light of some of the above issues, consider the  article “A five-step plan to Feed the World”,   from National Geographic Magazine  (May, 2014), whi ch suggests

dramatic re -think of the way in which we produce and distribute food  (note: the paragraph at the bottom of p. 35 links with the top of p. 43; the many pages of

in between have been placed at the end of the document).

•  What is Austra lia’s role, as a net exporter of food, in our region and in  the wider world?   Australia  sees itself as playing a vital role in ensuring global food

security, both
through research by the  CSIRO  (click on the links to the left and view all 8 pages of this resource) and the Office of the Chief Scientist which published  an

Paper on  Australia’s Role in Global Food Security .

There are various groups (“stakeholders”) that are involved in this issue in some way . In this section, please refl ect on the information from the previous section

and from
the following resources. In reviewing the information from these sources, identify the perspectives and interests of each stakeholder group. Consider the questions
provided on the cover sheet of thi s task in order to guide your reading.

Perspective 1:

Scientific Research and Development
CGIAR  (Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research) is an international research consortium devoted to improving
agricultural production, particularly in the developing world.

The   CGIAR’s Strategy and Results Framework  gives an overview of their vision and work. They are motivated by the desire to
improve the health and welfare of all human persons.  They identify four particular aims:
•  Reduced rural poverty
•  Improved food security
•  Improved nutrition and health
•  Sustainable managed natural resources

In this Podcast, s cientist Dr Nina F ederoff ( or read the  transcript ) ,  advi sor to the US Government ,  explores  a number of possible
solutions to increasing food production . Her   interview here is in response to a paper published in Science magazine .
OPTIONAL: I f you have an interest in the full article ,  see: “Radically Rethinking Agriculture for the 21

The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation  is a leading body in all aspects of agricultural research , again motivated
by the desire to improve life for the poorest people .

Most countries have their own research bodies e ngaged in agricultural research, such as Australia’s CSIRO or America’s National
Institute of Food and Agriculture.  They are concerned with ensuring the f ood security of their own people;  moreover, they see
the economic potential for their individual nations in being able to export increased amounts of food to other countries which
ar e unable to feed their own populations.

Ethical Questions for Reflection
Do you think that nations should share their research and development breakthroughs with their neighbours?
Do rich countries have an obligation to assist poorer nations in their  efforts to promote   food security?

Perspective 2:

Farmers producing food
Of basic importance in the production of food is, of course ,  the farmer. 60% of the world’s population are farmers but levels of
agricultural productivity vary widely throughout the world.
The vast majority of farmers live on and work their own land,
however, in some places this is under threat from large corporations buying up land. Proponents of small farming argue that
family farmers respect and love their land and are thus better able to care for its long term production value. 2014 was declared
by the UN as T he Year of Family Farming. This report and podcast  o n  family farming   (or read th e  transcript ),  fr om the ABC ,
outlines why the UN undertook this action.

Many nations face dilemmas   about  how to better ensure increased agricultural production to safeguard food security. This
piece fro m the European Centre for Development Policy  management  debates some of the options. The question is: Should
large scale  farming  under foreign investors or small scale farming by local families with better access to land and technology be
pursued in Africa? Others argue that it is not simply a question of size but of soil improvement.

A.P. Central, “V Farming Facts,” accessed April 13, 2014, http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/members/courses/teachers_corner/8655.html

Another choice facing developing nations is whether to invest in Genetically Modified crops to increase production or in
improving traditional farming methods and seed stock. This choice is currently being debated in  Uganda.   Debate often revolves
around the motives and role of multinational companies which promote GM food. This article “ Feeding the Hungry or the
Greedy ” explores many aspects of the debate in Uganda.

T he article,  “ A five-step plan to Feed the World”    ( also  linked above, in the Background   section of this Hot Topic),  discusses the
interconnectedness of the natural world and ecosystems,  thus  demonstrat ing  the complexity of ensuring food security. Look at
this article again, with the  farmers’  perspective in mind.

Ethical Questions for Reflection
What are the ethical and environmental implications of small vs. large scale farms?
Should governments force  their farmers to use GM technology or allow choice? What are some of the broader implications of
GM farming?

Perspective 3:

International Aid and Development

Generally speaking, aid and development agencies advocate for working with  rural communities in developing countries. They
aim  to better  educate rural communities about agricultural practices and introduc e simple and affordable technologies to help
them  participate in building their food security by producing better and more plentiful food crops. Such agencies  would argue
that  communities’  participation in their own solutions is vital to good development practice.   These organisations also tend to
promote organic and sustainable agriculture ,  rather than the extensive use of chemicals and genetically modified seed which
are often too expensive for poor farmers to purchase.

In this short video, narrated by Matt Damon, this approach of empowering  small farmers in poor countries to increase
production  is highlighted as a  solution to food security   (or read t he transcript ).

The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation report on the  “ State of Food Insecurity 2013 ”   endorses this approach of
enhancing local agricultural development in tandem with broader economic development in developing countries. Read the
“ Executive Summary ” of this report (the full report can be found  here , if you have a particular interest) .  In its Save and Grow
program sustainable intensification of smallholder crop production is advocated  (read the ‘Overview’ and watch the video).

In 2011, the Australian Government established the Australian International Food Security Centre  which takes this approach  of
empowering local growers to enhance their  own   production capacity.

Search these sites for examples of initiativ es to stimulate local agricultural production :
Oxfam Australia
Caritas Australia
Catholic Relief Services

Ethical Questions for Reflection
Which approach is better: to give people what they desperately need or to work with them in meeting their own needs?  Is it
better to promote sustainable agriculture or practices dependent on the use of artificial insecticides and herbicides?

Perspective 4 :

Privately owned multinational

Large multinational companies like Monsanto  invest a great deal of money in research and development of genetically modified
seed to boost yield production and help make crops resistant to pests and disease.   View these links (and navigate each page
within the section, using the next button on the bottom of the page),  for  more information on how Monsanto is proposing to
assist agricultural production:
Why does agriculture need to be improved?
What is Monsanto doing to help?
How are we doing it?

BASFAgro   (a multinational chemical company specialising in fungicides, insecticides, herbicides) also promotes the use of
biotechnology. In this video, a scientist, Professor Ian Crute ,  (or read t he transcript ),  who works for this company, promotes the
use of biotechnology to feed the world.

Ethical Questio ns for Reflection
Because these larger corporations are privately owned, their core business is to make a return on their investment. They use
things like terminator genes in seed ,  which means that farmers must purchase new seed for each crop they sow. It also means
that farmers must use the chemical pesticides and herbicides produced by that particular company as the seed has been br ed
to withstand only those products. This imposes  a heavy financial burden, especially on poor farmers in developing countries.

There are many who are suspicious of large agribusinesses’ claims to feed the world   through genetic modification. Those who
speak against GM  say that  the  genetic modification  of food is a dangerous way to go and does nothing to address issues of food

distribution and access, especially for those who are poorest and most hungry.  The following resources from Greenpeace
International   outline some of the main arguments:
•  Corporate Control of Agriculture
•  Risks of GE food  (see also the video linked to this page)
•  Feeding the World  –   Facts versu s Fiction

Another who questions the use of biotechnology is  Sean McDonagh . McDonagh answers “no” to the question, “Will  Biotech
Agriculture Feed the World?”.
Can poor subsistence farmers in developing nations afford the cost of buying enhanced seed which has a ‘terminator gene’ so
that seeds cannot be saved from a successful crop? Should big business control the production of food?

Perspective 5:

Those who call for change in diet and

In order to better safeguard food security into the future, some people advocate that we need to re – think our attitudes and our
diets, particularly in the industrialised countries where obesity levels and food wastage levels are high.
In this presentation ,  Tristram Stuart highlights the global food waste scandal  (full  transcript available).

On this site,  go to video  number 2 which presents Mark Bittman  (full captions available)  highlighting a number of issues,
including the overconsumpti on of red meat and its consequences, in the W estern diet.

This article from the Stanford Woods Institute for the Env ironment   again highlights a number of problems which arise from the
increasing consumption of red meat.

This brief video is based on the summary of a report on the livestock industry ,  by the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation   (or
read the  transcript ).

Ethical Questions for Reflection
How much food i s wasted in your household?
Do you ever think about those who go hungry every day?
Have you ever thought about the energy used to produce the food you eat each day and the impact of that energy consumption
on the environment?

Perspective 6:

Christian  Churches
In 2008 Pope Benedict XVI addressed   the participants at a high level  Conference on  World  Food  Security organised by the UN’s
Food and Agricultural Organisation. In his address he referred to a number of the principles of human flourishing you have
studied in this unit. The  General Secretary of the World Council of Churches   issued a statement for the same FAO Conference.

Pope Benedict was also invited to address the opening session of the World Summit on Food Security   in 2009.

In 2003,  the  US Bishops  produced a pastoral reflection   on food and agriculture. While this refers largely to an American context,
note the sections on the “signs of the times” and “Catholic Social Teaching and Agriculture”, which discusses the principles we
have been studying as they apply to this important question.

Ethical Questions:
There are numerous questions we need to ask, from an ethical point of view, in relation to  the issue of Global Food Security.  Many of these questions have been

through the examination of the various perspectives. A few more are listed here. Can you t hink of any others?
•    How does commitment to  the common good  inform decisions in meeting the challenge of greater  efficiency and   equity  in achieving food security?
•  How can the thinking of those of good will in developed countries move from a position of providing donations of food to those in developing societies to a
social justice perspective, which recognises the rights of all people to have access to techniques and equipment and markets  which would enable then to be self-

•  When upholding rights  to intellectual property, how significant is the common good  when considering what is due to large corporations on the one hand, and,
on the other hand, the benefits of research findings to small, local farmers in developing countries?
•  How significant is the common good  in deliberations on political and economic issues, such as land tenure for small farmers, and the building of infrastructure,
such as roads, which would facilitate the transport of food?
•  How does one seek to make more transparent and fair t he prices which are paid for food products internationally?
•  How does one reconcile, from the perspective of  the common good , the requirements for food security and environmental sustainability with the wastage of so
much edible food?

Which approach, or combination of approaches ,  would most effectively promote the common good?
Consider all that you have read in this module. Think about the history and background to the issue, and the diversity of perspectives and interests among the

stakehold ers. Think about the ethical questions, and how the different positions dispose us to thinking differently about what the sta keholders should or should

not do.
Now ask yourself what the best course of action  would be for securing the common good .  What should multinational agribusinesses do to bring about the

common good?
What should the  farmers and consumers do ? How will the common good be realized in this situation, and who must contribute?

And what about us?  What should  we  do?

Assessment: presents a critical account of an issue of social justice or the common good.
Length 2000 words or equivalent Weighting 50%



By Keith Weller, USDA ARS [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons from Wikimedia Commons

2. Describe the issue (150 words)
3. Explain why this is an issue of justice or the common good (150 words).
4. Identify the people or groups who have a stake in the issue and analyse their perspectives on it. [You should analyse at least three perspectives.] Why may some

stakeholders not want the situation to change? (750 words)
5. Analyse the issue in terms of the common good and the principles that promote human flourishing. (750 words).
6. In light of your analysis, how might the common good best be served in relation to this issue? (200 words)

Learning Outcomes and Graduate Attributes
This assessment task goes towards helping you to meet:
• Learning Outcome 1: Explain the concept of the ‘common good’ and present examples of the common good in action;
• Learning Outcome 2: Explain the concepts of ‘social justice’ and advocacy for the most vulnerable’ and their importance for the common good, and present

• Learning Outcome 3: present a critical account of a topic or issue in social justice;
• Graduate Attribute 2: recognise their responsibility to the common good, the environment and society;
• Graduate Attribute 4: think critically and reflectively;
• Graduate Attribute 9: demonstrate effective communication in oral and written English language and visual media.

Criteria for assessment (See the Assessment tab in your LEO unit for a detailed rubric with descriptors for each of these criteria) 1     Explanation of the issue

as one of social justice or the common good.     10%
2     Identification of stakeholders in the issue and critical account of their perspectives in terms of social justice, the common good and advocacy for the

most vulnerable.     30%
3     Analysis of the issue in relation to the common good and the principles which promote human flourishing.     30%
4     Critical reflection of how the common good may best be served.     20%
5     Written and/or oral English expression including spelling and grammar.     5%
6     Consistent and correct use of selected academic referencing style.     5%
TOTAL     100%

2000 word essay

Students are required to use correctly one of the following referencing systems for Task 2:
• APA (in-text referencing with reference list at the end)

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